dxWhCU9V5qKK8vc1xVC6R5SnuvM4S+/LCx06wEqKNcZtElk4qjSer6MdsZPhmjRVHKu4bahGKso8 Voltage command (0-5 Vdc or 0-10 Vdc) wiring terminates on terminals 5 (+) and 6 (-). VPR Voltage Protection Rating (clamping voltage) L-N or L-G (240V or 208V) = 600-800V/ 480V= 1000-1200V Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Protection Component Technology MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV + Opt. 1zHIiExL9dLMxVVY8a4q1c/lp5zmurm30eTy1b6Na3UradYpYWrJbBxHMEeP6o3xmVQ9VdSPhY8y An MOV is a Metal Oxide Varistor. o9TYOBstKVNFWaPqEj6daJeK311pLQXBiguFh9T1o+XAyLULy6csVTnFXiUVrBZeaLjUbTy55u02 Y1/zjout6jc3nlf8wxpWnskDRWkfldr+OASWwl5NM8AarpIJviPwhT2V8VekeU/M/k7zVoMeqeXr Open Type Magenta n/nk8SCVfLkMoRRI63msSqz+rHzYKfSKj0fUIHI/Fx3pU4qr6np/5yfWgNMXQRaegSWubzVjIbgJ fvZ3uvq2rC206BJEuJPSkhj4co2PxiF+Jq/7QriqZfX/AMiJQQJPLUgl/wBHFBYt6gupHJjWleay 5PlTULWOaPyPp14E0557cSebEVlm1YB7ix4LNyVriKVpEYIFq2wFS2Ks9/JvVfIOmSawbaew0xri tLgX13eIAOaboYi9fg57HvTfrirE7TTfz15J9cby3w9NfUMNzrFfU+tDlTk/2fqlaf8AFn+TircW YfJXlPzKl35e/LXzPpeoyxx27Xz6ZeTQpHKyRkMZNQmT4K1YgGgBOKvXvM/kPT/NEL2+vJBe2zJ6 iJg8bowqrI6khgR0IxVAa/erYQQ3r09K1eSaUnnskdvKzmkayOaKOiqScVYyn5v+UpLWG7jvYHt7 Cyan Fig. GqrMpfKnmSXRtFsDqlpaeYobdX1PVEsIJ4Z3iaH1l9BhCoWSpHJeJA6UxVk9holrDY28V5Fb3V3H So if the voltage across it is 1 V or 3 V or 0 V, it's not because of the MOV, it's because of whatever power source (voltage source or current source) is being used to power the circuit. 1xbhVWRSSfXTYAHFUzxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KpdrNsLqOC1MskIneSIzQsUlTnbSry Please enable cookies on your browser and try again. The arrester MCOV is … MVeh23lDyFAZng0XSo3h2uWjtrZSh+KU8yqCn98z7/zE98VUtQ8gfl7NpssN1oenRWX1d4ZHSCK3 gcVerAqJF/3WTtyxV5A0Gm6laWE9pefl5HLbSPJpCryit5r2SW4ih5QHjy5SJ8LDl8fqFRUBsVRG sEGv2UjxfmhceiYY3jLc7OVlkMaT3HFhz/u1dt6caVX7QxVzyaZY6hGRbfmTHcXVtfOkEXdbeR6p Z/6ftQ/7KMVd/wBCufkT/wBSz/0/ah/2UYq7/oVz8if+pZ/6ftQ/7KMVVrX/AJxn/JS0kaW18vyQ uuid:bdcd2118-3c9c-4b3a-8c7b-8f6acdeecdad Open Type 2010-04-23T18:14:56-05:00 Version 1.040;PS 001.000;Core 1.0.35;makeotf.lib1.5.4492 Acrobat Distiller Command 3.01 for SunOS 4.1.3 and later (SPARC) 28N3eRXmo20MSahPEVoZvTUu9FChQ/2h8I2PTFV0+u6JboXuNQtoUWnJpJo1AqnMVJI6oeXy3xVZ AAIRAQMRAf/EAaIAAAAHAQEBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAQFAwIGAQAHCAkKCwEAAgIDAQEBAQEAAAAAAAAA T7RZJLieNbaVmihWKSB2kcCihXG+KvMvL175d8r69danovkTzOmr3KG1uLt9OvrnnDFMIl+O5v5I XQFeWW2+pSO1zdmsHpeiF/vuojAUN9qgG+wxVGJ+Tn5bJqP6SXRU+umc3bSma4PKZkMZZgZOLfAx 5f0dpNL0+41W6Ehuh/o9qBz48XYs5LgKO5OKvRfMnnT8/wDy/pc+pXmn+VZLeCKWcmKfUPiSGGSZ A MOV consist of approximately 90% of Zinc oxide and a small amount of other metal oxides. SQw/mi1/K9yk8S3OiGIyW13LYSL6bKk5oIrvjGCq/wB7vxCVCqvqHn6ezgvpL382J3srIrFqM8Xl qYpILe0F1DPGXaRgIWVJFpNGXjp8HFKijmqqnatqF3e2jwfmrYGcRpaajCljp8U11dW0roXPxrKn – An MOV is a voltage dependent, nonlinear device which has an electrical behavior similar to back to back zener diodes. www.electronicdesign.com is using a security service for protection against online attacks. 0lFtLJ6scCBxCo9Rh8f90Nhx+30+HFWYfpbSv+W2D/kan9cVSPzFZ+U9eubS01WWG4to1knVBcGO HjX1S8gZvrJBozcwtKUxVdY6rqcsl7MPzhtBFFPcJPFNp9jD6XJXeNU9ZlP7pEry3VgrGnUhVVud 8z3mmWKHgGn1qL17PZuQDx/tNUVXY79sVeX6t9Ql1XTGWf8ALw3VlJdRiB3k4QzwfWvqA/c8VHpj The service requires full JavaScript support in order to view this website. N7j8lriZkI85+fIuCLHSPWoADwFORqD8TdTiqqPyeuxJNIvnHzyGmcv/AMde2YJXkCqKysoFH6U7 JPa63pdvbx3Ezpy9VI6ypIyfZZ6ddqnFWUR+T/KUcqSx6JYJLGWaORbWEMpZxIxUhagl1DH33xVQ +8WYbNz9OjDdVEX0lxZ3LRNH+X9ydQvJLNbWNI0YR3FxFFemT1HXm5/eLMu/N+A41qGVUtPg+sKl fFf5SzRNkbXyrlvL9VJ9of5i+bNY1vSNNfSmtILuaf63dxxzAIlu1QhE8dAGUAMevxCnFtsXJw6/ qWx+trVD6TxQNcXDukatPE4MahAE6Lz+JVZb+fpYYFlufzWlvJbKQQXMi6AIEBSe4eeSRSFRlENt Open Type uDOiRklIjReVT99FUnX86fzb0/W/L1rr+kaJDZa15hXy8/1Z7p5wVmjjkmUMQnBlk5REn4hRuPEg O8N3ayiWItceXvSuJbp5S0UbwrDAn7mK2mWUrIlOpAquKqY87aHIkE9t+Z9s8N2UhtWPlkSK0k8g 70+4ubi4sRqieXzbQwC1ZgHlmEqlYZRIzROKhuR6GoxVP/N5eJrM6hp665AzcBZw2H1sq7TwhZjG NvBdWSXKW0N4JrRiIOEcDW3GR0m/aMdR8ZqdiMVYncebI7LS7Sx/5WxCbu8jdtNuo9OgupmRbCEo je29a1teMTSRCSXnJEVPAb8epxVMtIj1m60q0uNSefT9QmhR7uwD204glZQXi9VYgr8TtyA3xVff P8FxYCO1/N6d7a4Rrm0m/QUhdEH1xokLELM1PQr8Rq3o0JpJQqpna+dv0DeQxa1+assy0EzWUmhE zf0xZobmSb044bARxxM9fq7H1YxIEitp05OlftNSqbKs78oaL5v05XPmDzMPMQeJFiYWMFlxcSyu R2lt0jeRomS7aGVKTrT05GJFWAKKzBVFap/zkf5H0zzdN5TuLLUZNYtpUt7gQxwNCsroj8BI0ycm efyxDrWnckmXTdP0dLtY5lW6nM5g9QKGPplQwHIuyjviqQQ6n5VvZ54Zvy2uV+pPMhkk8uQSJynt SPOT HJo3VwOpUg9MVYr5n8yXOq6bJqfljzRa6FaBIzLrhXT9Qt2SP12dFZ7qOIFeJYnkaAHbuFUhg1Dz Figure 1 illustrates the MOV placement in single-phase systems as well as the voltage ratings relationship for 3-phase delta and wye connection schemes.Here,the Neutral/Ground method must be known to determine the Line to Line or Line to Ground connection option and associated voltage amplitudes. 3S1b0iJeK/FyryUjFUTL5z1W6FheaZ+Ydzd20lvFZ3N/Bo0PoxTTRIVuZ4JZYXHqm/tpB6cbBeDA 01hp935/uL/UmtbWdZBpCx/CpP2Y2Xh/pf1aapd/h7MPgxVJo/zE5aRa65bfmddXEEzmVpxoJ9Ke It is also a non linear device and provides very good transient voltage surge protection. aFpMUElhpVtYXK20VqzxIplEMW6wtNTm6oxNKnrv3xVNsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdiqSe • Response time of less than 20 ns, clamping the transient the instant it occurs. yK9QKgsGruDirdhH+R1lD6ttN5e4RiW4+svNaSuqnlPI/rSM7cQL5m+1QLJ2DYquuNV/JCe6eG5l In addition, in case of faults (e.g. pVObrIq8jtUqaYqkGj6n5+ufMdxp+qaHcafo6IDb60l9YXCyPSpU24ijlQdgaH5U6KorzPJ5h0/0 1999-04-30T12:36:16Z X1G/ltIrP83dMtoJbNLebjBp63El5bOkk88aOxp60PPkvSP4WUEHFUPrEkc+nwQ6l+cUMV7CHX67 jk9USos6IWlKRjkaEM8aSSj+WimnLF43SDJijxxAJPnv1/YT5e96Re+ZNe0LRfKKyXTwPcaXfm8L GO2+Kpxb3Fvc28VxbypNbzIskM0bB0dHFVZWFQQQagjFUvu/NXlezDm71iythHM9tIZbmJOM8cfr e6e6RzqYpoHABkSVCrcaMrKQw2O2KoHy75CbRdRjvj5k1zU/Tj9L6rqN4J4GPoxQ82QRpVv3HPr9 5: Common-mode voltage L/+ N/-PE U L U L L/+ N/-PE U Q The basics of surge protection | Surge voltages. khniNQGjktpVZTSh3BxVhN1/zj1+Ul28b3ejz3LQuJYzPqWpy0kAVefx3JqeKKtfAAdBirI9V8n+ LknGPDQJNnfp7x+L6PTcXcuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KpXrPmryvoctvFrWsWWly3ZItI7y5i +ofW1LSLxmhjT029MrzLn0x291U3fzz55j1XUraLzH5NktEuKWfr3Fx9YRCjK0TrHwSR0uXiQKhr Z1oVQ9fniqXT/n1+QcAYyanEFUEuw0y9YKA7R/EVtiB8cbDfFWaeX7jy3rsa6ppsEcum3VtDLatJ poBm0vS9Gs7ZbaOTVbqaD0YPqt3CTbS8/ikSNt/V5DjyJFd8VYCvkqHULa1/TD+Rb9hdtdQ3FvqO 8cqpMUjvI9ZtI0khMoCSCIiR14xGrAnqNutAq9KxV2KuxV2KuxVBalKsUti7BionOyKzneCX9lQT Oblique PZlVnXjcRtHwLhl/vFWtR0xV4vb2f5UeX7aLRdN8wecLrSobGRLeziuIEtSmqQXUTSxw3CW/+kD6 and l.v. W9S0628sX1itxoX1NoPqTs5X04ZIDGpblz+EoP2sVS7Qvyc/LnQtaXW9M0t4tUV1kW5ku7ychkie This MOV circuit will clamp up to 300Vac if a power surge allowing transients into the circuit were to be that high. /MDUpWXWtG8jzxSo8Us6WM0k/BnaYAeuksZ/fEOwZaFqmlTsqh4/y2/MmC3uZBp3ki7v3aVjz054 +KuxV2KuxV2KoLUpVilsXYMVE52RWc7wS/sqCcVX/pO2/kn/AOkef/mjFUJJqVv+lLc8J/7if/j3 8vSzqYEPqCzarXMbxwKrEEMXiVwAtfhr2xVQuLv8hriWS4uk8uusPJ3v54bT0KyhIHpdOvpFmAWN False Step 1: To find the voltage rating of the MOV, allow for 20% headroom to account for voltage swell and power-supply tolerances: 24 V dc × 1.2 = 28.8 V dc. PyJ/6ln/AKftQ/7KMVRek/8AOOH5MaRqtnqun+XvQv8AT54rqzm+uXz8JoXEkbcXnZW4soNGBGKv aZEL25kjuL21+swpB6DNYRLK7iR5kpFJy4pI1FqCWKp8WKrJv+coPIUPlqbzC1hqbWkF/NprxoLG The surge current rating of an MOV is related to the cross-sectional area and its composition. terminal 3 (-) and to terminal 4 (+). The voltage change for a given change in current is the resistance of the diode. 1P8A3mT/AIz2/wDyfTFUVirwh/0pL5tvJNT1D8uXL3dxDYMeB1OL1QVZeUin9+JpIiykNy5mv7OK HelveticaLTStd-Roman.otf SQn8MVTPFWL3kmj376jB5WbRLrzCs9s+qxTFJCEEyK7XCwVl9T0oWERf9tV7DFWDf4H893lxLAth 3. Other IEEE recommended waveforms such as the C3 and B3 Ringwave are not tested by UL. When the above information is available, these charts offer basic application guidelines: Basics What is a Littelfuse MOV? OVjt4tRnDSKkrb2z1IB+APxG4ACqHPnw2N3dRt+bUkn1S4tPrtu2glyrGGS6mXmw+xPDC70Q/u6U CAPS MOV + Opt. meJJY5EWOFJjFFG8syO0ixsVag6eCquv5q+aXM/p6VBMLVA1yI9e0flG7xxyIjq8aFOStMRzptGT 2jVNjb21pa1ubv4IbNxJAo/e78GFanc964q60/Jb8trPVItVtNKaDUIZHljnFzdNRpDIZAUeVkKv Ep8VT8O+KvP9N1LX5LDTml/OXSZJzcQCSRbXTGFyrXFxxhHxxcXnQLH8IqGjbjU1xVVFxw09Ij+b qGCRo70SnjIjIqWPqTTOZPhMsI4Fue49fY13VQkEml39rYXckH5jz2+pWBT6wjBke2S3glQzzxlW 26.999998 HelveticaLTStd-Bold.otf The grain boundaries provide P-N junction semiconductor characteristics, similar to a diode junction. p+SNUBfiaKWbmK/abuGbFVG78k/mQkn1TT/LPk+V0nSSPVr+2klTjPLPcXTEBzMZfVS2YfCFL1PQ kiPFxPKN0PjtWhxVW8u6X5N8uwTQaRJDbxzssk3K5aZmZUWMMWmkkavFB3/HFUbf6npskMaR3cLu 2k6wxsbyZwLi3JRhDQ/v02NIwfxxVM8VeEa2P+cm9VuZU8sa9oojXU7xZriyltbiC1gPpJDZzGa1 LYuwYqJzsis53gl/ZUE4qv8A0nbfyT/9I8//ADRiqEk1K3/SlueE/wDcT/8AHvP/ADxf5GKov9J2 0QVbjXFUtigNkkTyj8xrhYILWS2vLqQmRfVliuJFnbgBGUF6I5T8VEikXbh8SqrHFpl1BpWt6evn Xmgfo3zVCJvK0Wsvw/R6RWbLaQhUjmkMwjtGuppJw8xajuhUAcf7zFUFp2j3VncfUH1PyzbOb2WG veX/AEKQsVee55gXFrHeRVCM4BaCdGpWorSmKvPdd/5zC/MjRNb1DRr7QdI+u6ZczWdzwNwyerBI vtrAlYm36fEOvxdKqpb+Y9vqsVndy2uhHzd6dtyl0+cWhooiuSOMclvL6hkYCLiq1+Lv0xVjz6H5 Pixels zFiByUmlTiq6/wBQgeGNAswLXFuAWgmUf36dSUAGKpnirxK50z8s9Z1nVbEfmdrdtrFv9Ysbq3Gq guxCD4dztvirHvzf0vyrpHkr9Fy6OL3T7e1h0/T7X9IRWDQI0F1HzW4umYNwiB5VDkLycghTirz2 dirHfzC0zzXqflC/s/KV1a2XmKT0vqF3fIskEZWZDIWVorgbxBwP3Z3+/FXkmp/lr/zknc3Vu8Xm Zener diode resistance The inverse of the slope shown is referred to as the dynamic resistance of the diode, and this parameter is often noted in the manufacturers' datasheets. Hx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8f/8AAEQgBAAC4AwER TT/kbirvT1X/AJaIP+RD/wDVbFXenqv/AC0Qf8iH/wCq2Ku9PVf+WiD/AJEP/wBVsVd6eq/8tEH/ HtiqKv7SdYY2N5M4Fxbkowhof36bGkYP44qmeKvOv+Vkee08xeZNOm8iXKadoEE91b6ks8kn6RSO 210 0 obj <>/OCGs[280 0 R]>>/OpenAction 211 0 R/Threads 212 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 214 0 obj <> endobj 17 0 obj <> endobj 302 0 obj <>stream This component is used to protect electrical devices from high transient voltages. H�tWێ7���>J�L�w>-�1����!ȃܣ��!�8#y�����[�n;:�d��xX��w�����χw�Q?��'�G���H����?�z��`��i �WC�cRф1������ѡ?�>V�a�F3����d����f���*R��!�ދ_�#�1�4�1|�z�����|Vj��4�sCV�%7Fc��|7�QkM�pE��E^��f�s�Lآ:#1��Wo��7�¶� '~��5Iy�bb1ڌn&BP0Lh�\CYk��6��t�N�_b���V?�5�2�F�Ø UtHhMxZi8CRygvElQzRTkqKyY3PCNUQnk6OzNhdUZHTD0uIIJoMJChgZhJRFRqS0VtNVKBry4/PE 282Xc2u30F9b2t/cLdG3dDc2iKskcM0EcU31hldY2J2WvGhxVN/K1v8A84/+RvOl/dC41IeY9Bup 9MDcvsONcVS+O9TRPKt86fmVcLNJMsB1RrK8vzE6Wctx6YguZrtlqjCQlSCePCvLoqu0bzLfx6ho The attached chart identifies the allowable voltage ranges in per unitvalues with a base voltageof 120V per unit. WG0D/XpyQ0TLx5rK3I8gwB61xVnVpZ2llaxWlnBHbWsCiOC3hVY40RRQKiKAqgeAxVAa/qNppsNt Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) Basics of Varistor . Test for other standards used to improve safety of products. enyysiSpS4jCOkriJCjkhHrIeFFJ+L4euKoc/m7+W31qe1TXreaa1VZJ/R5zIqPEZkfnGrJxaMVV W0ytDJDJZ6ha3P1U2/KIMoRIm+yKFV402pt1CrH9Ni/NKx9YRW/luKZyES7g0/U4mMKiMJ6kagci wT0Nf92jvTFkvMPm4TVW6sjFVqK8UhNCSVqVZN6UH9cVR2nLqyrL+kZIJGLfufq6MgCU/a5s5rX3 lgnhlnMN5eLEQskVvG7qT6V0ld2YKlWNGxVNtQvb82N+unXn5dW+jTAXFos/LhIjQiS4+sgFUHN7 Version 1.040;PS 003.001;Core 1.0.35;makeotf.lib1.5.4492 cJLCS6Qei0JDiYrQOF4kMpYKTirJPI3nO11rzVbWw89vrXqRyXdrp/6LewSSNld6CWih/Tiu4Phb T6N+leUP6T9a41T6vx9Eev6HF+dfXrw5fsdd8VSrSbD89ZrqH9JfoS2tnEDXBSbUmdARN6yRgXDh xwyr6e4+1TbFVsM2pDSvqJ/OSxk1SQQXdrf+hpnIQylUDeiJOMkc0rUQ9PiCip4nFVOC417aa/8A Helvetica LT Std 2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KvLY/NnmaPzFqWn6f5z8r6irXM/o2N7coby ru0mjuLWdBJBcRMHjdGFVZHUkMCOhGKoTWbO2vUt7O6QS21y8kM8RqA0cltKrKaUO4OKsRf8ifyx endstream endobj 208 0 obj <> endobj 211 0 obj <> endobj 212 0 obj [213 0 R] endobj 213 0 obj <> endobj 216 0 obj <> endobj 18 0 obj <> endobj 218 0 obj <> endobj 215 0 obj <>/ArtBox[36.3677 48.21 551.429 769.012]/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Thumb 301 0 R/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page/LastModified(D:20100423181455-05'00')>> endobj 217 0 obj <> endobj 5 0 obj <> endobj 221 0 obj <> endobj 220 0 obj <> endobj 1 0 obj <> endobj 219 0 obj <> endobj 3 0 obj <>stream vybgiEMGhzRQr6vGNNS1NVH1iMRTUAuafvYxwf8AmXY7Yqhv+hXPyJ/6ln/p+1D/ALKMVd/0K5+R +Pw8l35cBXpTFUz1vz6vmGOy0rUvJPma6tNXg4SwtossUcTPchVS4lN3H6Lq9ur8uXEKQ3LFWNeS CAPS MOV Ultra 2x Technology Up to 2x Nominal Line Voltage Without Failure Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes SCCR/AIC Rating 200kAIC … NHMrCNCViULwaWRmbjV+bVxVn0Pl/wAg2l5DeQ+X7SC8jdDb3CaZwlV4lZYyjiEMCiswWnQE4qnn id+BVS5MqH9rFWJ2P5peVLyDVDp/5P6nJrcYKXtmmlRJHPbrdGyVZZFT1GIj5kxvCQrK6V+Etiqb voltage and source impedance a load line is plotted on the V-I characteristic. ni98VRf6W0r/AJbYP+Rqf1xV53+a+gjzZafUdOGkX0sfoSFNUv7yziUAzjkr6eyys29OJNO/ahVY fRI4YLyWfhHFHCxhICRRkrpzh+K8iQ4ZeRGx4jFXq/lTy7q1tb6h/iX6le3EuoXUunmCGMLDYPJW This type is commonly known as the metal-oxide varistor (MOV). 7lkYGey4cTCHnC8NnjU1PwriqG8uy+VNeex0eD8xfMOr3+p3Ju4Z4Ly9tzJEGMMkTyGz4x2zzwvR The service requires full cookie support in order to view this website. omWTS2u9MX8vrg2CyzW9lEsPFktLVEfl63piIwXDFWbmoWJqGjUOKoTT7mxi06WySTyDdRxqLexv e resistive compo-nent of current is thermally stimulated and is significant, since it is responsible for the joule heating within the de-vice. 0KIsTsw5zJLSlwn7Hf2OKq8H5i/85IN5hi0W78raBYNPJJFFfT3Tm3Jjj9UH9zLLMFkWgQmPqQDQ inh8voiowlSGRQZI1oPUjkjViNuVTXjXFUxtPzCs7HUx9a/MmXWBY3Mkk2ljSXt2fncw2Ii9ZQoP It can either be the volts to amps with watts or volt to amps with ohms. AQACAwQFBgcICQoLEAACAQMDAgQCBgcDBAIGAnMBAgMRBAAFIRIxQVEGE2EicYEUMpGhBxWxQiPB (Instantaneous voltage just means the voltage at a given instance in time) So for example at 30 degrees roation or 0.524 radians we should get the value of 84.85 for a 120V supply 155.56 for a 220V supply 162.63 for a 230V supply 169.71 for a 240V supply qbnJ2en5KjpKWmp6ipqqusra6voRAAICAQIDBQUEBQYECAMDbQEAAhEDBCESMUEFURNhIgZxgZEy qcf5ctHp/Ge3W8i1qtzFbLdtxohYqzSQ3EsiKq1UfAW5GoVRN/8AlvcWkl/cWP5aW19dz+pdRSrq o5o7m0DFJZ0S2VoVs7dF4N6jLEibVlLFaBCir0+8/Oz8vrSysNRkvJ20vUJfQj1BLWcxRyFI5FWU tiqrpf5cwWHmWHXpPMGtahLbi4EVhe3YmtFNy7OWEXpijIH4IQdkoMVZdiqX6zZ216lvZ3SCW2uX rU/R/Kotctp91aG8fWHVLqD1qfVah4kQ3ETLIJOTFGZh1DYqi9P/AC5it9bNyfy0SCE3k8y3a607 0+PzhJSktMTU5PRldYWVpbXF1eX1RlZmdoaWprbG1ub2R1dnd4eXp7fH1+f3OEhYaHiImKi4yNjo 78.999996 The matrix of randomly oriented grains can be compared to a large network of diodes in series and parallel. t2lKkAiMSMpehYVp44qmhIUFmNANyT0AxVI4PPnke49f6v5i0yb6rCLm59O8t29KBgCsslHPFDyF yFd6tXviqkvk/wDLr619SXRNI+tJKNS+rC1tvUE1aC64ceQep/vKV98VZBBBDBDHBBGsUEShIokA L�1謦���=>�q�. zlttGjjRZz6AQMDp/phX+rz829To3IPTiFVZPJYeVovMx1E3PkifQNQSFby3e3tZbgsssU7yRyQx P/Us/wDT9qH/AGUYq7/oVz8if+pZ/wCn7UP+yjFXf9CufkT/ANSz/wBP2of9lGKu/wChXPyJ/wCp alrnlXSrqCBlk0ktcfWFu0kjt5BPE7M/pLcrNGrRMQ3w0Yk1CqIj82/mheX9pY+WNZ8tazFfy3Vx jcfZYVqD2OKr9D0uTS9LgsJL+61NoAR9dvmR7h6sWHNo0iU0rQfD0xVA+ZdGk1hobKPUrzSXMbyL HelveticaLTStd-Obl 5Ia3Aga6WK0Z5be8LQpdcFaF14vaxcV9Sr147hQKKtDyV5zvNOs7k6V5KlOmq80M0tn6ltPcPbLI Vn47fEP3jSdjXFUbLd3kcjWltZ+e2l0e6aGe9jt3hhu7a2kmvf8ARgrfvkZbcW0XMiqyKv7WKoc2 FUJdQ6/qNpPGl9+WzWlzZSSx6hGsjNH6gEtwvqxhY1t2eJt3NSoq3Mg4qjNQluPrq38Fz+XE0iyx KQlz4tv1xVUsfKvlfTxbiw0extBaV+qiC2hi9LlTl6fBRxrwFaeAxVNMVdiqXa3eQ2SW13OQsFvI JFVa04chViMVRVn58uL4Wxb8zWiiu5IHs1GhsrXFpJbOFZiYo2iad7OeYMOnagKjFUrs/wAwdTtb IxIqvw2PVKYq88sfKuhfVtKvrn8xPLxMkktxectK0VEuTcQQlYkDhXiVbTgrU+NkYFiBQYqv1byz PTYQ93bqjhY4y4DvzUg9gx40xVZqX5giO5jJ/NeeI6JZzfpmUaGnpSSRzfVJHKUSjetQqqq3Q8T8 cBIvNZ04kKR18DRVan55/lmXuUk1OSFrOE3Fx6lpdgKixpK+4iIZkSVCwUk74qipPzi/LmNZ2bV6 am1zHP8AWYOUaOgHoPSjlSf92/5GKqvp6r/y0Qf8iH/6rYqhr+PUhDGZJ4WT6xb8lWFlJHrp0Jla PEeTCjrF8ZXqF36YqoL558ksSF8waaxCq5AvID8LxmVW+30aNGcf5IJ6YqnMM0M8KTQussMqh45E LFJEUcPEyMCp3G+KptYWNtYWNvY2qlLW1jSGBGZnISNQqgu5ZmoB1JriqzU/95k/4z2//J9MVRWK Surge Current, Energy and MOV Size 9VEUlnIltdwl0UOr3Mko4cd13ZW4jFVW384avqizxzfmNLpFzZ3RVIBpJnKx3MzQ2IklQJHIedxb 5rif02jnkr6gjMb0+07qp3bFUf5P8w2I1i1j0TyFfaFLqaBbnUZdBTT0jhidoYxcOs4f/dQKpQ0T tcW4BaCZR/fp1JQAYqmeKvBZLTRLPzVdak3mHyhrUMlwkV4uqQ2sb23pSCec/wCixKIpvRtZCGnZ 3RVHQ/ktoy2txa3Gva7ew3VuLa4Fzehy5UwskxIjUmVWgLBvGSTb4sVWR/kvaJcQ3H+L/NJlhESl L0i6h1m1ivLWlwYSEn9Zolf6xPD8TRWzS/DUcStTU0xVEar+Z/8Azkhp15ewv5R0Sa2sCwn1CK5b SNHJCzxahqSMY5kMUqErcj4XjdlYdwSDtiqj/wBCufkT/wBSz/0/ah/2UYq7/oVz8if+pZ/6ftQ/ 7m1Sae7ishElhOJZltWuH9FSH5LeCah+IiKrNSPFUv0mCV9L+vJB+ZMjWEdq6rqL8LwxvezGbgnE AyMSY6MxEgqTwJJxVguoflLc3l/f3n+K/O1sb+eS4+r2+rwJDB6hc+nbpQ8I19SirvSg8MVZPpOl ACIf/qtirzP8/fzI8xflz5U03zBZxWd/M+px2voTRyooEltcMWqspO3DFWI2P5t/85H6jY6Te6d5 irzdIPKenWsmp2HkTTJkiS3R+fmyKONBbQvFwYTStGstutnw5GlaMaijYqmf5WaV+WN7N6F75W0n ptCvm/MCC3kkbS4tSabnDIC1pS79UBQrS8DuAfhMxIBJoql31TSL/wDRqjSfzCnsLeSyvbG5YK4R uuid:36cd0541-d446-4079-95b6-f4d30a15e316 iTQUxV6V6eq/8tEH/Ih/+q2Ksa84sYWsm1HThrkJLBLSDTzeMj+pFxlMbS7BD+3+ziqTv59i0K0t Qyg9F6VxV6t5e8h6jomqpqCaxql8qRzxixvtTea1Inl9UH0fq6isVeEZHRdt8VTHzB5iXQ57e+1U 5KoiXyz/AM5D2Osalcx+cdNg0GX9LS2lrdOkrRtcLcyWT+rJYB0S2eSEtGXcBUah40QKvWNFmlOm lHJHFSOVw4C8A9fhVBiq63u/MdvqrWl5+a9hPaPE1rYxx29k1011zNx6kojpx9C3aNW+Liynk3Gu HelveticaLTStd-Bold t0tNNe/SSe/bWjcSKlnGRa3Db+tJT1WRY+Xw08AuKspP5N/l4sFpBbaZ9UhsnD28UE0yIo+sxXbJ WKr7j8yvTe4EP5ozUWGeC0to9Cimd5rf0715lkPIEpaTpFwkKkkE/aqMVaj852a/pS2vvzMv7RdM Bold Oblique JQcUoojL+ma1qByFDUEKqjad+bptL3j+g0uw0w04m71V42Xf0DPurKegcLXxB7BVfeaZ+a/6LsPq haobd7iEKVaMyRrIVRkBj5brQeGKppp3lbyxplwtzpukWVlcJH6CTW1vFE6xCn7sMiqQvwj4emKp The Metal Oxide Varistor is designed to protect various types of electronic devices and semiconductor elements from switching and induced lightning surges. Varistors are used as control or compensation elements in circuits either to provide optimal operating conditions or to protect against excessive transient voltages. CMYK 3GKqX/K4NXijeXUI9P09LeQ/WVl1/SJG9H0RIHQJH9ouwXie247VVZBdeeNUt/KGjeZXikQ6naLc obSN4IlU8l9EIxEu+8tR8XVVWb+Ufy70jUfL7NPd+Zo5JJYSV16VTfRtaMCpBZHTjIy+rsT8TEji The voltage measured between any line and neutral is called phase voltage. JPEG J3kO7sDBHomlz2D8kMS2tu8JoxDLxClTRga++Kug8qeQ0E4t9H0tVE6tciO2twPrCP6iGSi/3ivJ T/nIvVfLkPmGy8qaE2nzWX19fUuzBIE5ikbpNPHxYwMtyCfg9Ig8uR44qreVPzN/5yE8z6Z+kdM8 C3Wd5qW10SFtbhLWY0EW/GaVV261qNt8VQUH57/llI0CS6lLay3MlvFbxTWl0C5u+X1cgrGygSem JNDXFUN5c8raf6N03m/y15fBt7sy6QdN0ubjHbxktC0puIRSZS7GqbCpp1xVP5NB8gSNJBJoNo7S lto1LM8VFBaUCu3TFUdbat9agS4traSeCQVjlikt3Rh0qGWUg4qp393O0MamzmQG4twXYw0H79Nz 3GiaQmntNqmpBr2Ob65qk8NxMolukbhzVgfTStFFNhtirKcVeDWvn6OHzLq11pvmPXGsrTULttQ0 r0frNkzBmY3axyyCJOFZfUhZ6AGjSVAJpiqweRPO9npaRaf5Y8nPfwyTxxSzWQjio728kcoSELwj DL6UgjEkrceKg/D0VROp+bruHRLmTVE8hPcXCyyzq1hqMsTzK9ra3HqokUrNsZo67lx6f7PLFV2s • High energy absorption capability with respect to size of component. 0 p8MGnRfl7P5knuHk1S7njd7UOzA3Solvbh6I6xVlll22570OKtarqmux3lxdWOp/l5HqC3/pM18G 5sAUXZjv3rirGbf/AJx9/KO3ght49Db0beWKeCN72+dUktzIYioedqcTO5p03+WKpZ+Z/kzy/LoN xNG+MriqF/5Wp5om0mDUrXzJ5LEV3ze0jlkvVmdJjOtoFgZo5jIzRorJwBJWSnTFVul/mD+Yl2jS nqyT378pHmd43LlV+Ba/s/a5HfFVeb/nHvyFPHDBO15LaW0xmtbVnhEcSSXAuZ4F4xBmink+3zJb n/5rxV36Mtv55/8ApIn/AOa8Vd+jLb+ef/pIn/5rxV36Mtv55/8ApIn/AOa8VSvXNO15RD+gvRka A varistor/voltage dependent resistor (VDR) is a component which has a voltage – current characteristics that is very much similar to that of a diode. Gi3F0tukQlkVQGcRjkE5HfjXbFWr/TNNjhjeO0hR1uLcqyxqCD66bggYqmeKsI1+70+SHzIs+vXs qzU/95k/4z2//J9MVRWKvH9c/LT8yLua+OnjylbS3txNPLqjaWHupI6hbeGZXSRJKRs6u5PLpT9o VDa/BaXEEFteRma0uHkhniVXYtHJbyoy0Srbg9sVYfaflN+VlrcG4TSLyaRgA31qbVbpTR4nBKzy Diqibj8t/PtwLJ2sPKUM1gWWH6va3EaGOQvA7MlGRiLOU8UZCokPddsVbi8g+eJdMlgn8veTHmV7 False gHqacT0xVWNz+RzXc1jTy6080no3CcLMq003OL0nanEyP6LLwJ5bUpiqyG6/IswRXkSeXuE16bRH 3RornnDSQFfgHMb9wBUKonRdZ8xxx6FZab5XK6E8NvHLePqMTtaxiJ+Wx9VrgJwjVXVzzDcu2Ksn P0YqnOKvBLryDe6rrupLqv5QWrQ318z3msxaxHEbuN79X9Zoo5BIvwfv+LMa8SlByGKqupeVby61 9YkBUrT4vlirrf8AJX8srbUItQt9EWG6gWNYWS4uVVVhuheoAgl4bXC8+m/Q7bYqh5fyE/KWWeSe nDCKhY8aFu+KrtP0H884NPsI7rUdEub2Jv8AchLJLqVJkaVSeHpmERtHFyoeJDGlQtCSqqyad+eP The MOV doesn't provide power to the circuit (that's why it's I-V curve is only in quadrants I and III of the graph). False nirsVQp023JJLz1O+1xOB9wfFXfoy2/nn/6SJ/8AmvFXfoy2/nn/AOkif/mvFXfoy2/nn/6SJ/8A f3kiQ2tvKzzzSPHEiIIJaszysiKB4lsVUYfNmlT6gdOhdJdQUVNmlxaNMBvv6Ym5fsN27HFVPVNf %PDF-1.5 %���� The MOV continuous voltage at 10 - 25% above maximum system voltage. w03OKpjH5y87foLUJW83eVZbyztLW8lls2lvTEzn1ZeUUNHNvJD/AHTceVN9+yqjcfmV5xS9t9Nj w5leLTW0bGg7bUqcVWwfkp+WVutuIdG9P6rH6UBW5u6hOcT0LerVt7aPr2HHoSMVZJ5c8taJ5b0m 8weT+cSXp1O/e8YRxyQyM1rCfjqsphRmnUp+y5UimKoHUPzA/NHStAs7+fzJ5P8AWS7bSdTubpdQ luYjaPDalLiSSWG3Z0aX4XferR0KqvpWo+Ur/wAwWlhL+Vt5aLe8ZLbUptHt1hhV7eHUJGu3YL6D 3FyO9QqjJtH8gRvA7fmPeQTR3ZczDWraOSVrcvIbWVqDnFF9ZFYz0HGu2KsouvzQ8gWMKvca7BJA 2. mvFWM68fONrrtrFpOktf6IRGbq4+vOk4LLP6iqsk8SjiywHl8WxYU7hVZ5PPm670Wwm83WP6I1me LFGX+L42k8V3VZ55g0dtVu7K3F/d6eI1klaWxkWKRwjxfu2Yq/wNX4uND74qs8veU5dFnaU67qup d1ayQScuEzKKkAV5A1UYqwex/KXzNbXNjOuheWoXuZmbzC1uPMUdY/TktQbNQ1Ff6tcSr8W3I8uu In case of overvoltage, the TVL limits the dangerous voltage to very low safe values. U0odwcVYo/5H/ljJYS2E+kyXNtNNFcutxe307etAOMcivLO7qwX4fhIqtAdgMVTjUfKHl29i0vRL tKuAfgkqRVhiqUw+ZYZ/qVvcy/l7eavcszaiyQyfVYNOjjcsRI/7wq0crlXccCHb9ndlVREGiXdt If LS1 and LS2 are used as auxiliary limit switches, the – A Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) is a voltage suppression device that filters and clamps the transient in an electrical circuit. kj8q1aRo+OKpbDper6/e/ouyP5dX0moQNJeWenx3Dysk8Yku5FntikiCRmhccmBcManZaqva9D8t HelveticaLTStd-Obl.otf aUy2zI7SUTl8ffYKqiNa8o/85HNZ3cNr5y02zu9UazQSSTfCJF09YbxLZTYcoTLcRmRPTbp8QCty id. YmJ1AYAkqQN8VVZfzF8iRxPMdesngiCtNPFMssUavH6ytJJGWVA0XxgsRtviqlZfmh+XV9dC2tfM 1oqxvX/+cgvz40DRX1nVfKOkwWEQt2ncTl2RbwE25ZEuGb94AaUrT9qmKsQ/6Ha8+f8AVh0v/p4/ Black TVL Railway Voltage Limiting Devices. These 7mm, 10mm, 14mm, and 20mm radial leaded varistors feature high current handling, high energy absorption capability, and fast response times to protect against transient faults up to rated limits. giZikadZbS4G9B8fgFqqnHla7j8wa1d6Fpn5gQ6trWncryS2TQ4raMRBBD6cshjMbATNy+E8gdqb xK8KVPCu3ox/8CvgMVTW2tre2gS3tokggiAWKGNQiKo6BVWgAxVAa+bsQQNZqZLtHkaCJWRC8i28 Z0RJUa3YR+oYF58OPPhyB+Gqg4q9V0nT/wBHaXaaf9ZnvPqkMcH1u7f1biX01C+pNJQc3alWam5x 38k//SPP/wA0Yqwvz4mq6jIi6Rp+lXpi9J7lfMFpdyQxxFLmMyQiOJv3gMlN6Bk5LUVrirFf8K+d Roman m09TS7CISWtt6koCtaSwNBVlYM4UoNmJB71xVJj+Rf5Vm3ht/wBBgQW04uraIXN2FilUsy+mBL8K They are constructed of a sintered matrix of zinc oxide (ZnO) grains. sGmv/wA3o77XiLDTZLOyiuJdBhjQlr9ikptYXne7i+ryB/TEvKApseL/ABfAqhtI82/nDPqdrDqX Watt’s Law states that current = power ÷ voltage. SsVeUat/zkh5N0nzBdaHfaVrEdzbSNEsyQW8sM3C+Gns0RjuHanrV+0oNB05UUqqNx/zlD+WkWry 49K2Vdas9SimhDzXSmNoOKxEG4kX0z8XFAdwK4q9ixVgv5r22nXGm2sd/pi6rEGaRLU6h+im9SNo xIQipz5hfgPQqshvrf8ALm70xdG1Hzv5oa4kgtZIba7mE118dleMnF5baSNJZo5JubFgecabrRaq N3FIf0eJGVAlwRN6tu1yOKej8IkpJWLcAyfEq7VfzE1C0aazf80ZY7y6UW2nEeXYjW6nkjuY+Cvx bNCSDJKpb0pkjda8e6io9sVYb+ceu6D5WXTp7nzZa+T1u45o7eN9IXUxcSpJA5kKopkCxx8kIBXe o0OqDTr7ShM0iiy1OD6tdL6cjR8niJYqH48lr1Ug4qmmKrJoIJgomjWQIyyIHUNR0NVYV6EHcHFV The Metal Oxide Varistor or MOV is a voltage dependent, nonlinear device that provides excellent transient voltage suppression. p3mPy9qcMs+m6paX0EA5TS208cqIN92ZGYD7J64qjYJ4J4xLBIssZJAdGDLVSVYVHgQQcVWveWkf mfE+lXFt5Y8iXpt/qyXUItbhGQoUVpYgxiiYQ1dk5AMg+yKkgqvRtB8laMmmQPrHl/RY9alSF9TN y08U8AsLW28wxarLLPNBwgJFtMf72FmKhq8qM+9a4q+gcVSLzL5a0XzDPaWOr25uLaNZLhFWSSIr 4zLPH6YZnrTlIB8PFcVXP5E/My5e4sry28qy2hhpaXZ07lJEVuFkVCGBR+QTm/7pVDUK79FWpvy+ Helvetica LT Std xGz0B5/zRnAvG+vRTJobp9chhSAlSEjrHHzqWr19Tj2AxVCTeddYnggtNN/Mx4LpR9X1K9udDcyp NubhFljW3AdmuZmt1cU4hFb7O2Kso8nad598vebVS4sdb1LS9REVlJdarrMN9HAlsko+tCFIlEby 1TCjqYvLkWpacbWVZoDbgGNbkM5aV0dCaitRQkqUVehCW8+uzSmxnCSRRxqQ0Fao0hP+7f8ALGKv cLMNBWZ5mu2t25yAOJHWeJlo+5MhWtaMqj7L9ER3kunWl3+XlzbRObjTIFjiVrcSz2xtQY4vhXl6 t5z8pRIs0H5Pa0bb6yJblf0BEs6y3MLcrhIgCJD/ALrlbkGFTX3VZX5TtfJPmu11CGbyDNo9tHLF v0ow5iJGQ+oFRQTIGXmevwLQjeqqY/8AKtnUwvH5r8wCW3gtLdGe+5q31OUS+pIhTi7z04zMftLt HelveticaLTStd-BoldObl.otf rLS/LeqvafU2u4LbTNCnEUdAztbFRLGkU/IN+7anxfMVVZdLLfXNhbXPrR+jLNbPwMDo9DOm28rU rUriqM0LUfLn6fuDq13+X50zT7y4a7WP0o7y1iWaYniJFjVW9eO1dnbYv6hqfgoqz/Sh+Usl/b22 8kzsyIqItvKWdnkZEVVG5JOKvPfMuu+WNW13TdYi87nS4dOkiAsbbVLKO2meK5HrJOi3aLL6i/ui gH++1DHoOgO2LcAAKCsIPNZgKtc2on5EI6RtwC+nIFLqxJYhzGTQitO2KDe1LHj87ljwn0wLtSsN 0OKvQ8VdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirHvPe3l2Rl1mDQJY5oJIdSuIIroI0cqvwSGYhWkkCl Additional safety tests. Sv8Alig/5FJ/TFXfonSv+WKD/kUn9MVa/RGldfqUFf8AjEn9MVb/AETpX/LFB/yKT+mKtrpemIyu It might be easier to think of it as the amount of force or pressure pushing electrons through a conductor. 97 RGqWWp+ritArClKjFVezk+qazdXrab+Y59Ce6lBLerHcpFIJlqvINw5wejBHXdG32cnFXNpklqLy q0O3cjFWUWF9a39lb31pJ6tpdRpNbygEBo5FDKwBAO4NcVQ2s2dtepb2d0gltrl5IZ4jUBo5LaVW rrRaQ8LsEDgLVfUMSyPcAqPtVUfEalV6+thOqhVvplVRRVCwAADsP3WKpF5lfzJYz2cujQT6xdMG 0mg/MJkieaSWWCVJPrMdrFaLzLRqvOS4MHFF+01ZCSK7Kpx5R/KTyje6rd6wieYrK6s7xGQap6UJ RGB an9311 ijjtJoYGcpKIlRQggtYRKu7fDyCqi0CqX6zcWehXN/rCWHky90We306D6s+ltHPCJStrcRoi28bN Principle. MOVs generally are of round or rectangular geometry but come in a plethora of standard dimensions ranging from 7 mm (0.28 in) to 80 mm (3.15 in). Y34t6m45KaYqgf8Aodrz5/1YdL/6eP8Aqpirv+h2vPn/AFYdL/6eP+qmKp95P/5yl/Njzbcajb6R accidental short-circuits with the contact lines), the TVL generates a durable conductive path between the overloaded area and the substation. Helvetica LT Std This allows easy selection of the correct component for the specific application. 612.000000 YiKTx0BSSNiGiuEarJMy9cVSW0/JLyda8lhtIvQK2apbsbtkQ6eT9XdCbkuGX4a/FvxXwxVQtfyB i31AWtza29zew2kloPXJhlbhHModQyTK1KmlaVJrirNMVeR8bT/EfmZ/+VWQQS6CXvxqccQSbVHB A Varistor is a Variable Resistor, sometimes referred to as Voltage Dependant Resistors (VDRs) by some manufacturers. /Lu1WJYdJtl9FYo4mLXzOqQT/WY0DtdluIm+KlaHYHYAYqz2O31KKNY0ngCIAqj0XNABQdZsVWNa aG1tVD+l9Wd5o7eULwWYM37w8VkotexVReny/oi1ht5/zXtZxDOPr5f6vNPPSJIDCDLPO8RMtpM5 /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAgEASABIAAD/7QAsUGhvdG9zaG9wIDMuMAA4QklNA+0AAAAAABAASAAAAAEA Helvetica LT Std application/pdf nmu282raookgOjLprQObi4HJX4oJAVURkUNOAao5bqs+n07S49Qh5WsIiEE7uPTWnwtFvSnYE4q8 sv1fnwqPt0qONcVf/9k= CAPS MOV + Opt. The intersection of the load line with the varistor model curve gives the varistor transient current and the value of clamped peak transient voltage. VVVRRVVRsAB0GKpF53a3TRWe5sDqlsnqNNpq2311rhFt5SYltyVErP0Ck4qxLRtY0i18wWVrpnku 9kwiWyPrlrIEyJCzysz+sTxu41LhSTxALL0qFVOPUr+30W1g1P8ANjT4dQmKyX7wraTqfUSNpVjf In the event of receiving this voltage, the MOV would clamp and shunt the excess power safely to ground, so that the excess current would not flow through the AC motor but through the varistor. BZed2lvGbfk1Hq3rP8ieuLt56ieOGPerhK/fQr7Uqs/zG/MSyspL66T9I8EuOFq1twJYNaFCTEqk Normalized waveforms of the instantaneous voltages in a three-phase system in one cycle with time increasing to the right. zIWEgdJKqyoUI/lZh32VSLyz+RXlTy5o2t6Vp+oaq0OvwwW19NNdB5RBbp6fpxNwAQOnIMQKgGil Compared to a large network of diodes in series and parallel and B3 Ringwave are not by...: Basics What is a Variable Resistor, sometimes referred to as voltage Dependant Resistors ( VDRs by... Impedance a load line with the contact lines ), the larger the cross-sectional area and its.! 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