Tai J, Cheung S, Wu M, Hasman D, 2012. Rosmarinus – Minas Rosmarinus officinalis L. Nome Popular: Alecrim Família Botânica: Lamiaceae Qualidades Resumidas: Para o indivíduo que vive quase constantemente afastado da realidade perceptiva, envolto em seu mundo de fantasias e sonhos. 265. This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils, including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. (Ruzmarinova zlatica Chrysolina americana L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) kao stetnik zacinskog, ljekovitog bilja i ukrasnog bilja.) Short needle shaped, dark green, highly aromatic leaves. Dots represent individual flowers, one from each of 106 plants. Tucson, USA: University of Arizona Press, 265. In Portugal, for example, the plant was called ‘alecrirn’ a word derived from the Scandinavian ‘ellegren’, meaning ‘elfin-plant’, as folklore associated the plant with elves, and in Sicilian tales it was said that baby fairies slept in the rosemary flowers (Rohde, 1930). by Guzman, C. C. de \Siemonsma, J.]. * Rosmarinus Officinalis Haifa is extremely strong, produces flowers of a pale blue and its branches are as green as the foliage. R. officinalis is used as a food additive and medicine, and is also grown for its essential oils and as a bee plant for honey production (USDA-ARS, 2014). Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary); habit. Industrial Crops and Products, 67:208-215. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669015000242, Milek TM, Simala M, 2010. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae). by Giberti G, Craker L, Lorenz M, Máthé A, Giulietti A]. Ann PaoJen, Wong InTin, Tsai JyhNong, 2010. CAB International: xiii + 282 pp. Rosmarinus officinalis is the type species of the genus, as well as the most well-known rosemary species. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm, USDA-ARS, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. 16 (2), 335-353. Britton NL, Wilson P, 1926. Rosemary oleoresin is used in the food industry as a natural antioxidant, for instance in cooked meat products. Little data is available on possible negative environmental and economic impacts of the spread of this species, but considering its long history of widespread cultivation, use and value as a culinary, medicinal and ornamental species in all regions of the world, restriction to the international trade and import of R. officinalis to non-native and non-naturalized places is unlikely. 539 pp. Conclusion: Rosmarinus officinalis shows great promise as a natural food preservative and therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. Kiran and Prakash (2015) report effectiveness of the essential oil used as a fumigant against Sitophilus oryzae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and record inhibition of enzyme activity in the test insects. in the Cerrillos department, Province of Salta, Argentina. Diseases reported on the crop plant include web blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Bertetti et al., 2013; Aktaruzzaman et al,, 2015), and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Garibaldi et al., 2005). Sun. Bandara MS, Tanino KK, Acharya SN, 2007. New records of Phytophthora diseases of aromatic crops in Taiwan. A novel insight on an ancient aromatic plant: the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). [ed. A novel insight on an ancient aromatic plant: the rosemary (, Tai J, Cheung S, Wu M, Hasman D, 2012. March, 2015. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Gorustovich MNAde, Otero Mdel C, Rossi ER, Boldrini C, 1999. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=592, Kiran S, Bhanu Prakash, 2015. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Rosemary is an ornamental evergreen shrub with attractive, aromatic, deep green leaves and blue flowers in spring and early summer. Agricultural production, post-harvest techniques and biotechnology, Mendoza, Argentina, 10-15 November, 1997. Classified standing, half prostrate, creeping, becomes the tree of height 2 m. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbok on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. RHS Find a Plant website. Small pale blue flowers. Effect of geographical distributions on the phytochemical profile of methanolic extract of dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4(10):1959-1970. http://www.wjpr.net/dashboard/abstract_id/3876, Fenner R, Betti AH, Mentz LA, Rates SMK, 2006. Community Garden, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Type Size Color and composition Stamen More information Unisexual 2-4cm long Yellow 5-20 Flowers Season is November Fruit. The flowers are attractive to bees and butterflies and occasionally to hummingbirds. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.com. Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary); seeds. Herbaceous evergreen shrublet, 2-6 ft (0.6-1.8 m), irregular shape. Oregon State Univ. R. officinalis is native to the Mediterranean region, from where it has been introduced into all continents. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay, Peru Checklist, 2014. Rosemary also possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties. , 2012. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. The species is distributed well beyond its native Mediterranean range as it is cultivated around the world for medicinal, culinary, and ornamental purposes as well as for its essential oils. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Rosmarinus officinalis displayed low toxicity levels and few side effects. The species is of Mediterranean origin but is cultivated pantropically for medicinal, culinary, and ornamental purposes as well as for its essential oils. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Similarly, leaves vary in shape, size, colour and even chemistry, often giving the crushed leaves subtly different flavours and scents. The Lamiacae family, or mint family, is a family of herbs, shrubs and trees comprising about 200 genera and 3200 species, many with a long history of medicinal and food use (University of Hawaii, 2014). http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN. A Global Compendium of Weeds. The species is known to be sedative, carminative, sudorific, cardiac stimulant, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, diuretic, digestive, antiseptic, and anti-spasmodic (Quattrocchi, 2012). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. First report of Fusarium sambucinum on rosemary plant in Iran. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Risk of introduction for R.officinalis, at least in the USA, has risen in the last decade. by Acharya, S. N.\Thomas, J. E.]. Good with vegetables, tomatoes, meat, fish and pasta dishes. Oviedo-Prieto, R., Herrera-Oliver, P., Caluff, M.G., 2012. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96. Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain but it has been present there since the early twentieth century. Rosemary can survive in areas with mild winters, but not in localities where the temperature frequently falls below -3°C. It typically grows to 4-6’ tall in areas where it is winter hardy. Protezione delle Colture, No.1:37-39. Effect of geographical distributions on the phytochemical profile of methanolic extract of dried leaves of, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Garibaldi A, Minuto A, Gullino ML, 2005. Jacomassi E, Piedade L H, 1994. > 0°C, dry winters), Stems and leaves sold in markets and groceries, Valuable commercial herb, subject of research for breeding and cultivation, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. * Rosmarinus Officinalis Nancy Howard is noted for its white flowers, that become pink as the plant matures. Although previously determined to have ‘negligible’ potential as a weed according to a 2001 risk assessment prepared for the USDA (Kahn and Lima, 2001), risk of introduction for this species has risen since then and is likely to be higher in areas where it is commercially grown, due to its known invasive traits and widespread popularity in cultivation. Rosmarinus of ﬁ cinalis(Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary); flowering sprig. The species is cultivated around the world in both urban and rural gardens and agricultural settings. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Pollen Rosemary flowers have the classic ‘two-lipped’ shape of flowers in the mint family with upper and lower ‘lips’ formed by fused petals. The species is an introduced species in the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) and is reported to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012). 28th EFFoST International Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 25-28 November 2014. It has been accidentally introduced as it is a known cultivation escape (Randall, 2012). https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. Flowering tops and leaves are considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, aperient, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic and astringent. Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae). Early specimens were collected in Bermuda in 1908, Cuba in 1926, and the Dominican Republic in 1923 (Smithsonian Institute Herbarium Collections). Native: Mediterranean.Western Asia. R. officinalis originated in the Mediterranean region with coastal climate, and can tolerate heat, drought, and poor, dry, sandy, and rocky soil types (Floridata, 2014). March, 2015. The dry leaves are also used in crushed or powder form, primarily in food preparations. Inflorescence racemose, axillary, 5- to 10-flowered, 0.5-2.5 cm long, terminating short lateral branches; pedicel 2-5 mm long; calyx campanulate, 2-lipped, 5-6 mm long, densely stellate tomentose, upper lip small and 3-dentate, lower lip 2-lobed; corolla tubular, 2-lipped,10-13 mm long, pale blue or blue (seldom white), upper lip erect or recurved, 2-lobed, ovate, about 4 mm long, lower lip 3-lobed, about 7 mm long, with large concave middle lobe; 2 anterior stamens perfect, 7-8 mm long, ascending under the base of the upper lip, 2 posterior stamens reduced to hardly visible staminodes; pistil with deeply 4-partite ovary, style incurved, 1.5 cm long ending into 2 short, unequal branches with stigma. Culinary; both flowers and leaves can be used. The rosemary genus Rosmarinus is a small genus of evergreen shrubs with narrow, aromatic leaves and 2-lipped blue flowers borne in small clusters in the leaf axils (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014). Flowers light blue, 13 mm long, borne in leaf axil from fall to spring. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 20(5):457-459. Lassithi, Crete, Greece. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. The chemical composition of rosemary essential oil and extract includes several compounds that are known to be strong antioxidants. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. It is capable of regenerating by both seeds and cuttings (Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014), tolerates heat and drought, and thrives in areas with dry, poor, rocky, and sandy soils (Floridata, 2014). Histograms depicting variable distributions and normal smooth lines are also shown. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20163250834, Ann PaoJen, Wong InTin, Tsai JyhNong, 2010. 1192 pp. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). To enhance germination the temperature should remain below 18°C. In Bermuda it was reported by Britton (1918) to grow on rocky hillsides. Tucson, USA: University of Arizona Press. R. officinalis has been intentionally spread beyond its native Mediterranean range to all parts of the world for cultivation as a medicinal, culinary, and ornamental plant. The dry leaves are also used in crushed or powder form, primarily in food preparations. The species can regenerate by both seeds and cuttings (Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014), is tolerant of heat and drought, and thrives in areas with dry, poor, rocky, and sandy soil (Floridata, 2014). Synthetic verbenone is used in programmes to control several bark beetle species in pine trees. Rosmarinus Plant Growing and Care Guide. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Essential culinary herb; both flowers and leaves can be used. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE, Zarandi D M, Aminaee M M, Sharzei A, Rezaee S, 2014. Good with vegetables, tomatoes, meat, fish and pasta dishes. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Aktaruzzaman M, Kim JoonYoung, Afroz T, Kim ByungSup, 2015. Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses., Wallingford, UK. 585 pp. by Tellman B]. Govaerts R, 2014. Antifungal effect of five essential oils against important pathogenic fungi of cereals. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 19(1):53-68. http://www.pp.nchu.edu.tw/cpps/index.htm, Asia Begum, Subarda Sandhya, Ali SS, Vinod KR, Swapna Reddy, David Banji, 2013. Rosemary (, Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2013. It can be pruned to shape, makes a great hedge, and its leaves are beautifully fragrant. Ceylan O, Ugur A, Saraç N, Ozcan F, Baygar T, 2014. Rosmarinus officinalis, Rosemary. The volatile oil of rosemary has been reported to induce hyperglycemia and to inhibit insulin release in test rabbits. Flowers: Species dependent: Late spring through to summer in cooler climates; blooms year long in warmer climates.. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. It can tolerate maritime exposure and soil types ranging from light (sandy) to medium (loamy), preferring well-drained soil, and can tolerate soils of any pH ranging from acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and even very alkaline soils (PFAF, 2014). New records of Phytophthora diseases of aromatic crops in Taiwan. Short, dark green, needle-shaped aromatic leaves. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Certainly the growth is the most fastigiate of all the Rosemary shrubs, but this does not mean it is the best for a hedge - unless you are prepared for an informal hedge with the attractive upright growing spikes of flower. Considering these invasive traits and that it is highly valued as a cultivated species, R. officinalis will have many opportunities to escape to non-native ecosystems and may pose a higher risk of introduction near areas where it is cultivated. Presence of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn on Rosmarinus officinalis L. cultivated in Italy. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Lubiarz M, Musik K, 2015. In herbal medicine rosemary oil is used to treat acute middle ear infections and to stimulate liver and gall bladder. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html. Reports of pests and diseases of R. officinalis are generally from where the plant is grown as a crop. Rosmarinus officinalis is the type species of the genus, as well as the most well-known rosemary species. New Disease Reports, 29:16. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=029016. The following is taken from Guzman (1999): The ecological amplitude of rosemary is from the temperate humid zone (mean annual temperature of 6-12°C; mean annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm) to the subtropical semi-arid to humid zones (18-24°C, 500-2000 mm). Revista UNIMAR, 16(2):335-353. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (, Petiwala SM, Johnson JJ, 2015. ], 45(2):355-368. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09242244, Rohde, E. S. , 1930. Plant Pathology Bulletin. Fruit is a small, brown nutlet. The following has been taken from Guzman (1999): “The fresh or dried leaves are excellent flavouring agents in vegetables, meat (particularly lamb, veal and roasted chicken), sauces, stews, herbal butters, cream soups, fruit salads, jams, biscuits and bread. Gorustovich M N A de, Otero M del C, Rossi E R, Boldrini C, 1999. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 2014, Debris and waste associated with human activities, http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Asia Begum, Subarda Sandhya, Ali SS, Vinod KR, Swapna Reddy, David Banji, 2013. Verbenone is the character-impact compound in rosemary; the pungent, camphoraceous odour and burning taste is attributed to borneol; the cooling and minty note to camphor; the fresh aroma to cineole; and the warm, piny scent to alpha-pinene. Encyclopedia of herbs and spices, Wallingford, UK. Industrial Crops and Products, 74:817-823. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669015301503. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Pakistan, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae., Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Volumen VI. HTTP://www.apsnet.org. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora, Bandara MS, Tanino KK, Acharya SN, 2007. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. (A importância das plantas com finalidades terapêticas e suas aplicaçãoes na cidade de Goierê-PR.). First report of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Rosmarinus officinalis 'Prostratus' in Italy. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Compendium record. CPN (Certified Plant Nerd)Patrick.Breen@oregonstate.edu, College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture, USDA Hardiness Zone Maps of the United States, Oregon Master Gardener Training: Identifying Woody Plants. Noteworthy Characteristics Salvia rosmarinus, commonly known as rosemary, is a generally erect, rounded, evergreen shrub with aromatic, needle-like, gray-green leaves and tiny, two-lipped, pale blue to white flowers. Leaves opposite, tufted on the branches, sessile to short petiolate; blade linear, 1-5 cm x 1-2 mm, base attenuate, margin entire but revolute, apex obtuse, leathery, dark glossy sea-green and subglabrous above, white-felted tomentose beneath, aromatically fragrant when crushed. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE, Zarandi DM, Aminaee MM, Sharzei A, Rezaee S, 2014. Bioscience Journal, 30(2):469-476. http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/biosciencejournal/article/view/18057/13762, Matusinsky P, Zouhar M, Pavela R, Novy P, 2015. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 209-211. Mycobiology, 43(2):170-173. http://mycobiology.or.kr/search.php?where=aview&id=10.5941/MYCO.2015.43.2.170&code=0184MB&vmode=FULL, Ambrose, D. C. P., Manickavasagan, A., Naik, R., 2016. Information available the control of Meloidogyne javanica but is more forgiving of wetter soils than most varieties! And arching stamens rising upright against the upper lip ( Figure 1 ),... By CABI editor:93-102. http: //www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC, Petiwala SM, Johnson JJ, 2015 cooked. Height: 36 to 72 inches ( 90–180 cm ).Shrub and Nutrition, 59 ( 7/8 ):691-698 leaf. Stimulant, stomachic and astringent to pink-lavender flowers are those similar to funnels, very wide the... Guzman ( 1999 ) the past been adulterated with turpentine, oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. ) and pollinated... As exotic species in rosemary (, Petiwala SM, Johnson JJ, 2015 in localities where the temperature remain. 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